A cue stick (or simply cue, more specifically pool cue, snooker cue, or billiards cue), is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and. Engraving from Charles Cotton's 1674 book, The Compleat Gamester. Highest governing body: World Confederation of Billiard Sports: First played. Torrent anonymously with torrshield encrypted vpn pay with bitcoin. 2. Accumulation of Cyanotoxins and Their Effects on Aquatic Invertebrates. Although cyanobacteria and their toxins can exert effects in all taxonomic.
Cue sports - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"Billiards" redirects here. This article covers the word as an umbrella term for cue sports in general. For specific games known as "billiards" and all other uses of the term, see Billiard. Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick which is used to strike billiard balls, moving them around a cloth- covered billiards table bounded by rubber cushions. Historically, the umbrella term was billiards. While that familiar name is still employed by some as a generic label for all such games, the word's usage has splintered into more exclusive competing meanings in various parts of the world. For example, in British and Australian English, "billiards" usually refers exclusively to the game of English billiards, while in American and Canadian English it is sometimes used to refer to a particular game or class of games, or to all cue games in general, depending upon dialect and context.
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There are three major subdivisions of games within cue sports: Carom billiards, referring to games played on tables without pockets, typically 1. Pool, covering numerous pocket billiards games generally played on six- pocket tables of 7- , 8- , or 9- foot length, including among others eight- ball (the world's most widely played cue sport), nine- ball (the dominant professional game), ten- ball, straight pool (the formerly dominant pro game), one- pocket, and bank pool; and. Snooker and English billiards, games played on a billiards table with six pockets called a snooker table (which has dimensions just under 1.
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There are other variants that make use of obstacles and targets, and table- top games played with disks instead of balls. Billiards has a long and rich history stretching from its inception in the 1. Mary, Queen of Scots, in her billiard table cover in 1. Shakespeare, including the famous line "let's to billiards" in Antony and Cleopatra (1. Mozart, Louis XIV of France, Marie Antoinette, Immanuel Kant, Napoleon, Abraham Lincoln, Mark Twain, George Washington, French president Jules GrÃ©vy, Charles Dickens, George Armstrong Custer, Theodore Roosevelt, Lewis Carroll, W. C. Fields, Babe Ruth, Bob Hope, and Jackie Gleason.
History. Inset from School of Recreation, 1. We perceive from the engraving of the Billiards of the seventtenth century, that the game was altogether different from what it is now."All cue sports are generally regarded to have evolved into indoor games from outdoor stick- and- ball lawn games (retroactively termed ground billiards), and as such to be related to the historical games jeu de mail and palle- malle, and modern trucco, croquet and golf, and more distantly to the stickless bocce and bowls. The word "billiard" may have evolved from the French word billart or billette, meaning "stick", in reference to the mace, an implement similar to a golf club, which was the forerunner to the modern cue; the term's origin may have also been from French bille, meaning "ball". The modern term "cue sports" can be used to encompass the ancestral mace games, and even the modern cueless variants, such as finger billiards, for historical reasons. Cue" itself came from queue, the French word for a tail. This refers to the early practice of using the tail of the mace to strike the ball when it lay against a rail cushion.A recognizable form of billiards was played outdoors in the 1.
King Louis XI of France (1. Louis XIV further refined and popularized the game, and it swiftly spread among the French nobility. While the game had long been played on the ground, this version appears to have died out in the 1. Mary, Queen of Scots, claimed that her "table de billiard" had been taken away by those who eventually became her executioners (and who covered her body with the table's cloth). In 1. Duke of Norfolk, owned a "billyard bord coered with a greene cloth..
Billiards grew to the extent that by 1. Paris cafÃ©. In England, the game was developing into a very popular activity for members of the gentry.By 1. The cue as it is known today was finally developed by about 1. Initially, the mace was used to push the balls, rather than strike them.
The newly developed striking cue provided a new challenge. Cushions began to be stuffed with substances to allow the balls to rebound, in order to enhance the appeal of the game.
After a transitional period where only the better players would use cues, the cue came to be the first choice of equipment.The demand for tables and other equipment was initially met in Europe by John Thurston and other furniture makers of the era. The early balls were made from wood and clay, but the rich preferred to use ivory.Early billiard games involved various pieces of additional equipment, including the "arch" (related to the croquet hoop), "port" (a different hoop) and "king" (a pin or skittle near the arch) in the 1. Illustration of a three- ball pocket billiards game in early 1. TÃ¼bingen, Germany, using a table much longer than the modern type. The early croquet- like games eventually led to the development of the carom or carambole billiards category â€“ what most non- Commonwealth and non- US speakers mean by the word "billiards". These games, which once completely dominated the cue sports world but have declined markedly in many areas over the last few generations, are games played with three or sometimes four balls, on a table without holes (and without obstructions or targets in most cases), in which the goal is generally to strike one object ball with a cue ball, then have the cue ball rebound off of one or more of the cushions and strike a second object ball.
Variations include three- cushion, straight rail and the balkline variants, cushion caroms, five- pins, and four- ball, among others. Over time, a type of obstacle returned, originally as a hazard and later as a target, in the form of pockets, or holes partly cut into the table bed and partly into the cushions, leading to the rise of pocket billiards, including "pool" games such as eight- ball, nine- ball, straight pool and one- pocket; Russian pyramid; snooker; English billiards and others. In the United States pool and billiards had died out for a bit, but between 1.
Players in annual championships began to receive their own cigarette cards. This was mainly due to the fact that it was a popular pastime for troops to take their minds off from battle.
However, by the end of World War II pool and billiards began to die down once again. It was not until 1. The Hustler" came out that sparked a new interest in the game.
Now the game is generally a well- known game and has many players of all different skill levels.There are few more cheerful sights, when the evenings are long, and the weather dull, than a handsome, well- lighted billiard room, with the smooth, green surface of the billiard table; the ivory balls flying noiselessly here and there, or clicking musically together.â€”â€‰Charles Dickens Jr., (1. As a sportThe games with regulated international professional competition, if not others, have been referred to as "sports" or "sporting" events, not simply "games", since 1. Quite a variety of particular games (i.
Snooker, though technically a pocket billiards variant and closely related in its equipment and origin to the game of English billiards, is a professional sport organized at the international level, and its rules bear little resemblance to those of modern pool, pyramid and other such games. A "Billiards" category encompassing pool, snooker and carom was featured in the 2. World Games, held in Duisburg, Germany, and the 2. Asian Games also saw the introduction of a "Cue sports" category. EquipmentBilliard ballsCue balls from (left to right). Russian pool and kaisaâ€”6. Caromâ€”6. 1. 5 mm (2 7â„1.
American- style poolâ€”5. British- style pool (largish) â€”5. Snookerâ€”5. 2. 5 mm (2 1â„1.
Scaled- down poolâ€”5. Not shown: half- scale children's miniature poolâ€”approximately 2. Billiard balls vary from game to game, in size, design and quantity. Russian pyramid and kaisa have a size of 6. In Russian pyramid there are sixteen balls, as in pool, but fifteen are white and numbered, and the cue ball is usually red. In Kaisa, five balls are used: the yellow object ball (called the kaisa in Finnish), two red object balls, and the two white cue balls (usually differentiated by one cue ball having a dot or other marking on it and each of which serves as an object ball for the opponent).
Carom billiards balls are larger than pool balls, having a diameter of 6. American- style pool balls are 5. Blackball (English- style eight- ball) sets are similar, but have unmarked groups of red (or blue) and yellow balls instead of solids and stripes, and at 5. American- style; they are used principally in Britain, Ireland, and some Commonwealth countries, though not exclusively, since they are unsuited for playing nine- ball.
Snooker balls are smaller than American- style pool balls with a diameter of 5. English billiard balls are the same size as snooker balls and come in sets of three balls (two cue balls and a red, an object ball). Other games, such as bumper pool, have custom ball sets. Billiard balls have been made from many different materials since the start of the game, including clay, bakelite, celluloid, crystallite, ivory, plastic, steel and wood.
The dominant material from 1. The search for a substitute for ivory use was not for environmental concerns but based on economic motivation and fear of danger for elephant hunters. It was in part spurred on by a New York billiard table manufacturer who announced a prize of $1. The first viable substitute was celluloid, invented by John Wesley Hyatt in 1. Pool table with equipment. There are many sizes and styles of pool and billiard tables.
Generally, tables are rectangles twice as long as they are wide.
Billiards and Pool Cue Tip FAQs. Dr. Dave's answers to frequently- asked questions. FAQs), mostly from the AZB discussion forumchalk effects. Does the brand of chalk really make that much difference? See chalk effects. How long is the tip in. Clips HSV. A. 7. 7- A.
A. 1. 47- A. 1. 51 show close- ups of cue tip impact for various hardness tips and various. Here are some conclusions: most contact times (i. For some super- super- slow motion videos and data for how contact time varies with cue speed, see DBKcue's page on this topic. Some people think that what they do with their grip hand or follow through can change the tip contact time, but this is not the case (i.
Also, some people think a softer tip, which has a slightly longer contact time, can create more CB "reaction." This is not the case. The peak force isn't as large with a longer contact time (i. Therefore, the "hit" might "feel" slightly different to the player. However, the momentum effects (cue and ball speed changes) will still be the same, assuming the tips being compared have the same efficiency. Another thing that might be different is that a shorter contact time is usually associated with a harder tip, and a harder tip might have better efficiency, so the CB might have slightly more speed (with a given stroke) with a harder tip for a given cue mass and speed. And with more speed, less spin will be lost on the way to the OB or cushion, giving the impression that the hit created more spin. With an increase in tip contact time, the effective tip offset will be slightly greater (because the tip will rotate out with the CB during contact), but this will also result in more squirt, which will diminish the effectiveness of the slightly larger tip offset.
For more info, see cue tip hardness effects and getting more spin with an LD shaft. For more info and resources on these topics, see: tip hardness effectscue tip efficiencycue "hit," "feel" and "playabilityeffects of light vs. How much. does the tip deform during contact with the cue ball? Here's an image. from some high- speed video filmed by a group from Austria: The full video clip can be viewed at HSV.
A. 7. 6 (it is the third clip in the sequence). The video was shot at 2. Here's an isolated clip of the close- up. I've collected a sequence of images from the video clip and have.
MS. formats. The MS Word file is large (1. MB), but it is very useful. If you page. down through the file to load all of the images, you can then use the scroll bar. The faster you scroll, the faster the simulated. The images are 1/2. Here are some observations, insights, and questions. The tip is probably relatively soft based.
Contact lasts about 4 frames (over. The cue tip seems to stay in contact with the ball as the ball starts to rotate. The cue. tip had an excessive amount of chalk on it (as evidenced by the pre- impact chalk.
Here's another excellent video showing the tip dynamics during contact: See the following link for good examples of how the tip deforms and how the cue vibrates with both follow and draw shots. What affects how well a tip delivers speed to the cue ball? A hard tip will create more CB speed for a given cue speed.
For more info, see: From the experiment in the video, the range of coefficients of restitution (COR or e) were between 0. The analysis at the bottom of TP A. A phenolic tip can add about 1. For other effects related to tip hardness, see cue tip hardness effects. Cue construction (ferrule, joint, butt, and bumper) can also have an effect on both a cue's efficiency and hit/feel/feedback/playability. A shaft that is very flexible (not very stiff), will tend to deform and vibrate more during a hit.
This vibration represents lost energy because that energy remains in the cue and is not delivered to the CB. For more info and demonstrations, see the cue vibration resource page. Mike Page: Given that the speed of sound in maple is 4. I'm wondering if break cue manufacturers are barking up the wrong tree going to harder and harder tips. Presumably the motivation for going to hard tips- -phenolic or whatever- -is a belief that they are more efficient in the way you describe above. An unintended consequence, though, of these hard tips may be that because the contact time is shorter, there may not be enough time for the ball to "see" the full mass of the stick.
A round trip for the compression wave is about 3 meters (two stick lengths). So it takes about three quarters of a millisecond for the cueball to even have a chance of knowing about the back of the stick. My guess is the contact time for break tips is in that range. Why not try an efficient soft tip? Maybe get the contact time up to 1.
The harder tips are more efficient (see HSV B. Bob Jewett). My best measurements for phenolic tip contact time gave values close to 1/2 ms, but I didn't test at break speed. For more info, see: http: //billiards.
Excellent points and questions. Anecdotally, it seems like the phenolic tips still provide an advantage over softer tips, which currently all seem to be less efficient. How much force is generated between the tip and the cue ball during a break shot, and what would it take to generate a "ton" of force at the tip?
To keep things simple, let's use a cue weight of 1. For this case, TP A. CB speed is about 3/2 (1.
Let's also assume that the average force during tip contact is about half the peak force. And let's assume the tip is in contact with the ball for 0. For any CB speed (vb), given the CB mass (mb), the momentum delivered to the CB is: mom = mb * vb For a given duration of contact (dt), this momentum must equal the impulse delivered from the cue: imp = 1/2 * Fmax * dt So to find the peak force for a given CB speed: Fmax = 2*mb*vb/dt And for a given peak force, the CB speed is: vb = Fmax*dt/2 / mb And the cue stick speed required to create this is about: vs = 2/3 vb = Fmax*dt / 3*mb For a 2. Fmax equation gives a peak force of: Fmax = 6. To achieve a 1 ton (2. What differences does tip hardness make, and does it affect how much spin can be applied, or the amount of squirt that results?
Here are some relevant factors and effects related to tip hardness: A. Tip hardness (within the typical range) should. The amount of spin is limited by the tip offset that creates a miscue (see miscue limit). A. tip not "treated" (e. A harder tip might. Soft tips seem to hold chalk better.
A soft tip will give the cue a softer "feel". Some people. prefer some sounds and "feels" more than others. For more info, see cue "hit," "feel," and "playability."Tip hardness (in a typical range) has no practical effect on CB deflection (squirt). Soft tips can become harder with use. There is no question that a harder tip "feels" different and provides different "feedback" (a softer tip typically dampens the impact a little and the force of the hit isn't felt as strongly). It is also true that a harder tip can result in a more efficient hit, providing more speed to the CB for a given cue speed. And it is true that with slower CB speed, more backspin will wear off on the way to the OB with a draw shot and more sidespin will wear off on the way to the cushion with a sidespin shot (especially on slow and sticky cloth with slower shot speed).
These effects might make it seem like a softer tip is applying less spin to the CB. Regardless, the quality of spin (i. CB depends only on the tip contact- point offset from center. The physics on this is very clear. If anybody doubts this, they should do a careful and objective experiment to compare any tips they think would produce different results. For those who have math and physics backgrounds and are interested, the physics showing how the spin- to- speed ratio depends only on tip offset from center, even when accounting for tip efficiency, can be found in TP A.
The effects of cue tip offset, cue weight, and cue speed on cue ball speed and spin. Some people think that because a soft tip stays in contact with the CB slightly longer (see contact time), a soft tip can apply more spin. However, see Bob Jewett's comments below. Also, the contact time is still extremely small with both a soft and hard tip: close to a thousandth of a second (0. Assuming the CB speed is the same in all comparisons, even though the peak force will be different (more with the shorter contact time), the amount of momentum (linear and angular) transferred to the CB will still be the same (because the sum of force over contact time is the same in both cases). The CB doesn't move much (translation or spin) during the extremely small contact time, so the only significant factor is the tip contact point at impact.
Now, it is possible that a hard tip, especially if it is not holding chalk very well, will have a miscue limit closer to the center than a soft tip that is holding chalk well. In this case, the soft tip will enable a player to apply more spin to the CB since the tip contact point can be farther from the CB's center without resulting in a miscue. Also, if one thinks a hard tip can't hit as far out on the ball (even if it can), one might tend to hit will less tip offset from center, which will result in less spin. There are many factors related to tip hardness that could influence squirt, including: tip density/weight, tip efficiency, contact time, and effective endmass. Return of the squirt robot" (BD, August, 2.
A softer tip did seem to create slightly more squirt, but the experiment was not very well controlled (see the article for more info). In general, if the contact time is longer (as is the case with a softer tip), the effective endmass and resulting squirt should be larger (see the rubber- super- ball- tip report as an example). Another set of more careful experiments documented in the Cue and Tip Testing for Cue Ball Deflection (Squirt) video and "Cue Tip Squirt Testing" (BD, June, 2. Among the wide range of tips tested in the video, the harder tips did result in slightly more squirt.